Legal Risk Management in Electronic Commerce
- Managing the risk of cross-border law enforcement

Author: Jan Trzaskowski
Webdesign: MERE.INFO

Ex Tuto Publishing, October 2005 (ISBN 87-991018-0-7)


1. Introduction
2. The Internal Market
3. Public Law Enforcement
4. Private Law Enforcement
5. Risk Mitigation
6. Conclusions

7. Literature and References
7.1. Books
7.2. Articles etc.
7.3. Acts, Regulations, Conventions etc.

7. Literature and References

7.1. Books

  • Andersen, Mads Bryde, IT-Retten, Forlaget IT-Retten, 2001,

  • Baldwin, Robert (Editor), Law and Uncertainty - Risks and Legal Processes, Kluwer Law International, 1997

  • Balmer, John M. T. and Greyser, Stephen A., Revealing the Corporation, Routledge, 2003

  • Barnard, Catherine, The Substantive Law of the EU - The Four Freedoms, Oxford, 2004

  • Bassiouni, M. Cherif, International Criminal Law, Second Edition, Transnational Publishers Inc., 1999

  • Bellia, Patricia L, Berman, Paul Schiff and Post, Davis G., Cyberlaw – Problems of Policy and Jurisprudence in the Information Age, Thomson West, 2003

  • Biegel, Stuart, Beyond Our Control?, The MIT Press, London England, 2001

  • Black, Donald, The Behaviour of Law, Academic Press Inc., 1976

  • Briggs, Adrian, The Conflict of Laws, Oxford University Press, 2002

  • Brin, David, The Transparent Society, Perseus Books, Reading, Massachusetts, 1998

  • Brownlie, Ian, Principles of Public International Law, Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

  • Cassese, Antonio, International Law, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2005

  • Collier, J. G., Conflict of Laws, third edition, Cambridge University Press, 2001

  • Cooter, Robert and Ulen, Thomas, Law & Economics, Fourth Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2003

  • Cox, Steven M. and Wade, John E., The Criminal Justice Network - An Introduction, 3rd edition, WCB/Mc-Graw-Hill, 1998

  • Craig, Paul and Búrca, Gráinne de, EU Law, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

  • Cruz, Julio Baquero, Between Competition and Free Movement, Hart Publishing, 2002

  • Currie, David P., Kay, Herma Hill, Conflict of Laws, Sixth Edition, West Group, 2001

  • Dahl, Børge and Nielsen, Ruth (editors), New Directions in Business Law Research, GadJura, Denmark, 1996

  • Dixon, Martin, Textbook on International Law, Fourth Edition, Wm Gaunt & Sons, 2001

  • Eeckhoudt, Louis and Gollier, Christian, Risk - evaluation, management and sharing, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1995

  • Fejø, Jens, Nielsen, Ruth and Riis, Thomas (editors), Legal Aspects of Electronic Commerce, Jurist- og Økonomiforbundets Forlag, Denmark, 2001

  • Field, Richard H., Kaplan, Benjamin and Clermont, Kevin M., Civil Procedure, Eight Edition, Thomson West, 2003

  • Freeman, M. D. A., Lloyd's Introduction to Jurisprudence, Seventh Edition, Sweet & Maxwell, 2001

  • Friedenthal, Jack H., Kane, Mary Kay and Miller, Arthur R. Miller, Civil Procedure, Third Edition, West Group, 1999

  • Frost, Kim, Informationsydelsen, Forlaget Thomson, 2002

  • Glannon, Joseph W., Civil Procedure Examples and Explanations, Fourth Edition, Aspen Law & Business, 2001

  • Gomard, Bernhard, Civilprocessen, 5. udgave, Thomson GadJura, 2000

  • Hartley, T. C., European Community Law, fifth edition, Oxford University Press, 2003

  • Hay, Peter, Weintrab, Russel J. and Borchers, Patrick J., Clonflict of Laws, Foundation Press, 2000

  • Heine, Kasper, Grønbæk, Martin von Haller and Trzaskowski, Jan, Internetjura, 2. udgave, Forlaget Thomson, 2002

  • Hertz, Ketilbjørn, Jurisdiction in Contract and Tort under the Brussels Convention, DJØF Publishing, Copenhagen, 1998

  • Høyer, Gitte, Spencer, Martin and Greve, Vagn, The Danish Criminal Code, DJØF Publishing, 1999

  • Iversen, Jon, Legal Risk Management, Forlaget Thomson GadJura, 2004

  • Kay, Herma Hill, Conflict of Laws, Harcourt Brace Legal and Professional Publications Inc., 1998

  • Klein, Daniel B. (editor), Reputation - Studies in the Voluntary Elicitation of Good Conduct, The University of Michigan Press, 1997

  • Ku, Raymond S. R., Farber, Michele A. and Cockfield, Arthur J., Cyberspace Law – Cases & Material, 2002

  • Kuner, Christopher, European Data Privacy Law and Online Business, Oxford University Press, 2003

  • LaFave, Wayne R., Criminal Law, Fourth Edition, Thomson West, 2003

  • Larkin, Judy, Strategic Reputation Risk Management, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003

  • Larsson, Marie, konsumentskyddet över Gränserna – Särskilt Inom EU, Iustus Förlag, 2002

  • Lessig, Lawrence, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Basic Books, 1999

  • Lessig, Lawrence, The Future of Ideas, Random House Trade, 2001

  • Lookofsky, Joseph and Hertz, Ketilbjørn, Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration, Second Edition, Juris Publishing and DJØF Publications Copenhagen, 2004

  • Lookofsky, Joseph, International Privatret på Formuerettens Område, 3. udgave, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, 2004

  • Mathiasen, Jacob Plesner, Jørgensen, Niels Bo and Schlüter, Johan, E-handelsloven med kommentarer, DJØF Publishing

  • Miller, Roger LeRoy and Jentz, Gaylord A., Management and E-Commerce, West Legal Studies in Business (Thomson), 2002

  • Mueller, Milton L., Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and the Taming of Cyberspace, The MIT Press, 2002

  • Negroponte, Nicholas, Being Digital, Coronet Books, 1995

  • Newman, Peter (editor), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, Macmillan Reference Limited, 1998

  • Nielsen, Peter Arnt, International Privat- og Procesret, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets forlag, 1997

  • Nielsen, Ruth, E-handelsret, 2. reviderede udgave, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag 2004

  • Nielsen, Ruth, E-handelsret, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, 2001

  • Oliver, Peter, Free Movement of Goods in the European Union, Fourth Edition, Sweet and Maxwell, 2003

  • Ovey, Clare and White, Robin C.A., Jacobs & White, The European Convention on Human Rights, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, 2002

  • Ramberg, Christina, Internet Marketplaces, the Law of Auctions and Exchanges Online, Oxford University Press, 2002

  • Reydams, Luc, Universal Jurisdiction – International and Municipal Legal Perspectives, Oxford University Press, 2003

  • Schmidt, Torben Svenné, International Formueret, 2. udgave, Thomson GadJura, 2000

  • Scoles, Eugene F., Hay, Peter, Borchers, Patrick J., Symeonides, Symeon C., Conflict of Laws, West Group Hornbook Series, 2000

  • Shapiro, Andrew L., The Control Revolution, PublicAffairs, New York, 1999

  • Shaw, Malcolm N., International Law, Fifth Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2003

  • Shiner, Roger A, Freedom of Commercial Expression, Oxford University Press, 2003

  • Spang-Hanssen, Henrik, Cyberspace & International Law on Jurisdiction, DJØF Publishing, 2004

  • Spiermann, Ole, Moderne Folkeret, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, 1999

  • Spindler, Gerald and Börner, Fritjof (editors), E-Commerce Law in Europe and the USA, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002

  • Wadlow, Christopher, Enforcement of Intellectual Property in European and International Law, Sweet & Maxwell, 1998

  • Østergaard, Kim, Elektronisk Handel og International Proces- og Privatret, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, 2003

7.2. Articles etc.

  • Akehurst, Michael, Jurisdiction in International Law, The British Year Book of International Law 1972-73, University Press, Oxford, p. 145

  • Bainbridge, David, Trademark Infringement, The Internet, and Jurisdiction, JILT 2003(1),

  • Bar, Christian von and Lando, Ole with Swann, Stephen, Communication on European Contract Law: Joint Response of the Commission on European Contract Law and the Study Group on a European Civil Code, European Review of Private Law, 2, 2002, p. 183

  • Barlow, John Perry, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, 1996,

  • Baudenbacher, Carl, The EFTA Court – An Example of the Judicialisation of International Economic Law, European Law Review, Vol. 28, No. 6, December 2003, p. 880

  • Bogdan, Michael, Electronic Commerce: Problems of Jurisdiction and Applicable Law, Fejø, Jens, Nielsen, Ruth and Riis, Thomas (editors), Legal Aspects of Electronic Commerce, DJØF Publishing, 2001, p. 75

  • Bogdan, Michael, The "Common Market" for judgments: The extension of the EEC Jurisdiction and Enforcement Treaty to Non-Member Countries, Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 1990, Vol. 9, p. 113

  • Boyle, James, Foucault in Cyberspace, University of Cincinnati Law Review, Fall 1997, p. 177

  • Burnstein, Matthew, A Global Network in a Compartmentalised Legal Environment, Internet Which Court Decides? Which Law Applies?, Law and Electronic Commerce, Volume 5, Kluwer Law International, 1998, p. 23

  • Butt, John and Kerr, Philip, Trade Mark Infringement on the Internet, FindLaw Australia, May 2005,

  • Covelli, Nick, Suceeding in e-business: Strategies for Defining and Mitigating Legal Risk, International Journal of E-Business Strategy Management, Feb/Mar 2001

  • Cruz, Julio Baquero, Free Movement and Private Autonomy, European Law Review, volume 24, no. 6, December 1999, p. 603

  • Dahl, Børge, Erhvervsjura som ledelsesredskab, Niels Ørgaard (red): FSR's Årsskrift 1990, FSR's Forlag, 1990 p. 97ff

  • Davies, Martin, Case note [on] Kuwait Airways Corp. v. Iraqi Airways Co., The Effect in Private International Law of a Breach of Public International Law by a state Actor, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Volume 2, October 2001, Number 2, p. 523

  • Dawson, Sophie and Kloczko, Aaron, Beyond Gutnick: Enforcement of Foreign Defamation judgments in Australia, Society for Computers and the Law Journal, June 2003, Issue 52,

  • Debusseré, Frederic, International Jurisdiction over E-Consumer Contracts in the European Union: Quid Novi Sub Sole?, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, Vol. 10 No. 3, 2002, p. 344

  • Dornseif, Maximillian, Government Mandated Blocking of Foreign Web Content,

  • Dyer, A., Unfair Competition in Private International Law, RCADI 1988, Tome 211, Dordrecht 1990, p. 377-446

  • E-commerce and marketing on the Internet, position statement of the Nordic Consumer Ombudsmen on e-commerce and marketing on the Internet, October 2002,

  • European Convention on the International Validity of Criminal Judgments, Explanatory Report,

  • Foss, Morten and Bygrave, Lee A., International Consumer Purchases through the Internet: Jurisdictional Issues pursuant to European Law, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2000, p. 99

  • Garnett, Richard, Case Notes [on] Dow Jones & Company Inc. v. Gutnick, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Volume 4, July 2003, Number 1, p. 196

  • Geist, Michael A., Is there a There There? Toward Greater Certainty for Internet Jurisdiction, Berkeley Technology Journal, No. 16, 2002, p. 1345,

  • Gillies, Lorna, A Review of the New Jurisdiction Rules for Electronic Consumer Contracts Within the European Union, JILT 2001(1),

  • Giuliano-Lagarde Report, Official Journal C 282 1980, p. 1

  • Global Internet Jurisdiction, The ABA/ICC Survey, American Bar Association, Sub-Committee Chair: Professor Michael Geist, April 2004

  • Goldsmith, Jack L. and Sykes, Alan O., The Internet and the Dormant Commerce Clause, Yale Law Journal, March 2001, p. 785

  • Goldsmith, Jack L., Against Cyberanarchy, 65 University of Chicago Law Review, Fall, 1998, p. 1199

  • Goldsmith, Jack, The Internet and the Legitimacy of Remote Cross-Border Searches, University of Chicago Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper No. 16

  • Graycar, Adam, Grabosky, Peter and Tailby, Rebecca, Global and Regional Approaches to Fighting Transnational Crime, March 2001

  • Haines, Avril D., The Impact of the Internet on the judgments Project: Thoughts for the Future, Hague Conference, Permanent Bureau, Preliminary document 17, February 2002

  • Hellner, Michael, The Country of Origin Principle in the E-Commerce Directive - A Coflict with Conflict of Laws?, European Review of Private Law, 2-2004, p. 193

  • Holmes, Katherine, Public Enforcement or Private Enforcement? – Enforcement of Competition Law in the EC and UK, European Competition Law Review, Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2004, p. 25

  • Horrocks, Craig and Smith, Daniel, Is a Software License a Sale?, Findlaw Australia,, July 2003

  • Howells, Geraint and Nordhausen Annette, Information Obligations in EC E-Commerce Law, Nielsen, Ruth, Jacobsen, Søren Sandfeld and Trzaskowski, Jan (editors), EU Electronic Commerce Law, DJØF Publishing, 2004, p. 49

  • Hörnle, Julia, The European Union Takes Initiative in the Field of E-Commerce, JILT 2000 (3), p. 333,

  • ICC Guidelines on Advertising and Marketing on the Internet, April 1998,

  • International Law Association, Transnational Enforcement of Environmental Law, First Report, New Delhi Conference (2002), Stephen C McCaffrey (Rapporteur),

  • International Law Association, Transnational Enforcement of Environmental Law, Second Report, Berlin Conference (2004), Dr Christophe Bernasconi and Dr Gerrit Betlem (Rapporteurs).

  • Isenberg, Doug, Struggling With the French Yahoo Nazi-Auction Decision,, January 2001

  • Jenard Report on Convention and Protocol, Official Journal C 59 1979, p. 1

  • Jenard-Möller Report on the Convention, Protocols and Declarations, Official Journal C 189 1990, p. 57

  • Johnson, David R. and Post, David G, Law and Borders - The Rise of Law in Cyberspace, 48 Stanford Law review, 1996, p. 1367

  • Kabel, Jan, Swings on the Horizontal, The Search for Consistency in European Advertising Law, IRIS 2003-8.

  • Kang, Sungjin, Yahoo!'s Legal Battle in France and in the USA, Legal Issues of Economic Integration No. 29, 2002, p. 195

  • Katyal, Neal Kumar, Digital Architecture as Crime Control, 112 Yale Law Journal, June 2003, p. 2261

  • Kessedjian, Catherine, International Jurisdiction and Foreign judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, report, the Hague Conference, 1997

  • Koch, Harald, Non-Class Group Litigation Under EU and German Law, 11 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 355.

  • Kohl, Uta, The Rule of Law, Jurisdiction and the Internet, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 367-376

  • Kronke, Herbert, Applicable Law in Torts and Contracts in Cyberspace, Internet Which Court Decides? Which Law Applies?, Law and Electronic Commerce, Volume 5, Kluwer Law International, 1998, p. 65

  • Lang, Richard, Case C-322/01, Deutscher Apothekerverband eV v. 0800 DocMorris NV and Jacques Waterval, judgment of the Full Court of 11 December 2003, Court of Justice Common Market Law Review 42 (2005), p. 189–204

  • Lawrence, Jon and Moffat, Jane, A Dangerous New World – Practical Implications of the Enterprise Act 2002, European Competition Law Review, Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2004, p. 1

  • Lessig, Lawrence and Resnick, Paul, Zoning Speech on the Internet, Michigan Law Review, November 1999, p. 395

  • Lessig, Lawrence, Law Regulating Code Regulating Law, Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, Fall 2003

  • Lessig, Lawrence, Reading the Constitution in Cyberspace, Emory Law Journal No. 45, Summer 1996, p. 869

  • López-Rodríguez, Ana M., The Revision of the Rome Convention of 1980 on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations -A Crucial Role within the European Contract Law Project?, Nordic Journal of International Law, Volume 72 Number 3 2003, p. 341

  • López-Rodriguez, Ana, Lex Mercatoria, Retsvidenskabeligt Tidsskrift, 2002, p. 46,

  • Lubitz, M., Jurisdiction and Choice of Law for Electronic Contracts: An English Perspective’, Computer und Recht International, 2001 (39), p. 41

  • Lubitz, Markus, Jurisdiction and Choice of Law for Electronic Contracts: an English Perspective, Computer und Recht International, Issue 2, 2001, p. 39

  • Mankowski, Peter, Jurisdiction and Enforcement in the Information Society, Nielsen, Ruth, Jacobsen, Søren Sandfeld and Trzaskowski, Jan (editors), EU Electronic Commerce Law, DJØF Publishing, 2004, p. 124

  • Manolopoulos, Andreas, Raising 'Cyber-Borders': The Interaction Between Law and Technology, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2003, p. 40

  • McCrea, Philip, Smart, Bob and Andrews, Mark, Blocking Content on the Internet: a Technical Perspective prepared for the National Office for the Information Economy, CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, June 1998,

  • Menthe, Darrel, Jurisdiction In Cyberspace: A Theory of International Spaces, 4 Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review, 1998, p. 69,

  • Miller, Geoffrey P., The Legal-Economic Analysis of Comparative Civil Procedure, American Journal of Comparative Law No. 45, Fall 1997, p. 905

  • Mäntysaari, Petri, The Electronic Commerce Directive and the Conflict of Law - the Case of Investment Services, Tidskrift utgiven av Juridiska Föreningen i Finland, Häfte 3/2003, Helsingfors 2003

  • Newman, Simon, Legal Risk Analysis, Computer Law & Security Report Vol. 17 issue 6, 2001, p. 409

  • Nielsen, Peter Arnt, Den Globale Domskonvention, Julebogen 2003, DJØF Publishing, p. 113

  • Note on Conflicts of Laws on the Question of Unfair Competition: Background and Updated, drawn up by the Permanent Bureau, Preliminary Document No 5, April 2000,

  • Osthaus, Wolf, Local Values, Global Networks and the Return of Private Law – On the function of Civil Law and Private International Law in Cyberspace, Keller, Kenneth H. and Engel, Christoph (editors), Governance of Global Networks in the Light of Differing Local Values (Conference volume), Baden-Baden 2000, pp. 209-235,

  • Otto, Dianne, Handmaidens, Hierarchies and Crossing the Public-Private Divide in the Teaching of International Law, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Volume 1, Number 1, 2000, p. 35

  • P. Stone, Internet Consumer Contracts and European Private International Law, Information & Communications Technology Law (6), 2000, p. 8

  • Padmanabhan, Venkata N. and Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan, An Investigation of Geographic Mapping Techniques for Internet Hosts. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2001 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, San Diego, CA, August 2001,

  • Peers, Steve, Mutual recognition and criminal law in the European Union: Has the Council got it wrong?, Common Market Law Review 41, 2004, p. 5

  • Peidro, L. Marín, Sotomayor, S. Feliu Álvarez De, Giménez, A. Ortega and Sanchez, L. Heredia, Guide on Injunctions in the Electronic Commerce, 7 March 2003,

  • Penfold, Carolyn, Nazis, Porn and Politics: Asserting Control Over Internet Content, JILT 2001(2).

  • Polinsky, A. Mitchell and Shavell, Steven, Enforcement Costs and the Optimal Magnitude and Probability of Fines, Working Paper No. 3429, National Bureau of Economic Research Inc., 1990

  • Polinsky, A. Mitchell and Shavell, Steven, The Economic Theory of Public Enforcement of Law, Journal of Economic Literature No. 1, March 2000, p. 45

  • Polinsky, A. Mitchell and Shavell, Steven, The Economic Theory of Public Enforcement of Law, Working Paper 6993, National Bureau of Economic Research Inc., 1999

  • Post, David G., Against Against Cyberanarchy, Berkeley Technology Law Journal No. 4, Fall 2002, p. 1365

  • Prechal Sacha and Shelkoplyas, National Procedures, Public Policy and EC Law. From Van Schijndel to Eco Swiss and Beyond, European Review of Private Law 5-2004, pp. 589 to 611

  • Ramberg, Christina Hultmark, The E-Commerce Directive and formation of contract in a comparative perspective, 26 European Law Review 429 (2001),

  • Ramberg, Christina, Designing a legal interface for contracting on the Internet, Sjöberg, Cecilia Magnusson (editor), IT Law for IT Professionals, Studentlitteraur, 2005, p. 107

  • Reidenberg, Jeol R., Lex Informatica, Texas Law Review No. 76, February 1998, p. 553

  • Ribstein, Larry E. and Kobayashi, Bruce H., State Regulation of Electronic Commerce, Emory Law Journal No. 51, Winter 2002, p. 1

  • Schepel, Harm, The Enforcement of EC Law in Contractual Relations: Case Studies in How Not to 'Constitutionalize' Private Law, European Review of Private Law, 5-2000, p. 661

  • Schiavetta, Susan, Does the Internet Occasion New Directions in Consumer Arbitration in the EU?, JILT 2004 (3).

  • Schlosser Report on Convention and Protocol, Official Journal C 59 1979, p. 71

  • Sebok, Endre, The Hunt for Race Discrimination in the European Court,

  • Stone, P., Internet Consumer Contracts and European Private International Law, Information & Communications Technology Law (6), 2000, p. 8

  • Stuyck, Jules, Case C-71/02, Herbert Karner Industrie-Auktionen GmbH v. Troostwijk GmbH, Judgment of the Fifth Chamber of 25 March 2004, Court of Justice Common Market Law Review 41 (2004), pp. 1683 to 1700

  • Svantesson, Dan Jerker B., Geo-Location Technologies and Other Means of Placing Borders on the 'Borderless' Internet, The John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law, Fall 2004, p. 101

  • Svantesson, Dan Jerker B., The Characteristics Making Internet Communication Challenge Traditional Models of Regulation - What Every International Jurist Should Know About the Internet, International Journal of Law and Technology, Vol 13, No. 1, Oxford University Press, 2005

  • Tetley, William, A Canadian Looks at American Conflict of Law Theory and Practice, Col. J. Transnat'l L. No. 38, 1999, p. 299,

  • Thunken, Alexander, Multi-State Advertising Over the Internet and the Private International Law of Unfair Competition, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, October 2002, p. 909

  • Trzaskowski, Jan, Cross-Border Law Enforcement in the Information Society, Julebogen 2003, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets forlag, 2003

  • Trzaskowski, Jan, Direktivet om Elektronisk Handel, Ugeskrift for Retsvæsen, 2000, p. 643

  • Trzaskowski, Jan, Forbrugeraftaler og Reklamering på Internettet – Internationale Privat- og Procesretlige Aspekter, Ugeskrift for Retsvæsen, 1998, p. 285

  • Walde, Ian, Regulating Electronic Commerce: Europe in the Global E-Economy, European Law Review, vol. 26, No. 6, December 2001, p. 529

  • Vasiljeva, Ksenija, 1968 Brussels Convention and EU Council Regulation No 44/2001: Jurisdiction in Consumer Contracts Concluded Online, European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2004, p. 123

  • Weber, Amalie M., The Council of Europe's Convention on Cybercrime, Berkeley Technology Law Journal No. 1, vol. 18, 2003, p. 425

  • Weitzenböck, Emily M., Determining Applicable Law and Jurisdiction in contractual disputes regarding virtual enterprises,

  • Vermeer, Marike, Electronic Unfair Competition and Applicable Law: An Open Spot in the European Jungle, vol 7.5, Electronic Journal of Comparative Law, December 2003,

  • Wilkinson, Robin, Managing Legal Risks, Computer and Law, February/March 1995, p. 28

  • Zweigert, Konrad and Kötz, Hein, Introduction to Comparative Law, Third Revised Edition, Clarendon Press, 1998.

  • Øren, Joakim S. T., International Jurisdiction over Consumer Contracts in e-Europe, ICLQ vol 52, July 2003, p. 665

  • Østergaard, Kim, Metode på cand.merc.jur. studiet, Julebog 2003, Jurist- og Økonomforbundets forlag, 2004, p. 269

7.3. Acts, Regulations, Conventions etc.


EC Treaty2

EU Constitution3

2005 Framework Decision on Financial Penalties4

2005 Directive on Unfair Commercial Practices5

2002 Framework Decision on the European Arrest Warrant6

2000 Charter of Fundamental Rights7

2000 Treaty of Nice8

2000 E-Commerce Directive9

2000 Brussels Regulation10

2000 Regulation on Consumer Protection Cooperation11

2000 Convention on Cybercrime12

1999 Consumer Sales Directive13

1998 Injunctions Directive14

1997 Distance Selling Directive15

1997 Amsterdam Treaty16

1996 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce.17

1995 Data Protection Directive18

1993 Directive on Unfair Contract Terms19

1991 Brussels Convention20

1988 Lugano Convention21

1984 Misleading Advertising Directive22

1980 Rome Convention23

1972 Free Trade Agreement24

1972 European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters25

1970 Hague Convention26

1968 Brussels Convention27

1965 Convention on Racial Discrimination28

1958 New York Convention29

1955 Hague Convention30

1950 European Convention on Human Rights31


1Treaty on European Union - (consolidated text), Official Journal C 325 of 24 December 2002.

2Treaty establishing the European Community - (consolidated text), Official Journal C 325 of 24 December 2002.

3Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Official Journal C 310, 16 December 2004.

4Council Framework Decision 2005/214 (24 February 2005) on the application of the principle of mutual recognition to financial penalties.

5Directive 2005/29 (11 May 2005) concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market and amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council.

6Council Framework Decision 2002/584 (13 June 2002) on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States.

7Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000/C 364/01).

8Treaty of Nice, Official Journal C 80 of 10 March 2001.

9Directive 2000/31 (8 June 2000) on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (Directive on electronic commerce).

10Council Regulation 44/2001 (22 December 2000) on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters.

11Regulation 2006/2004 (27 October 2004) on cooperation between national authorities responsible for the enforcement of consumer protection laws.

12Council of Europe, ETS 185, Budapest, 23 November 2001. The convention has of 11 July 2003 only been ratified by Albania, Croatia and Estonia which mean that the convention has not yet entered into force. See

13Directive 99/44 (25 May 1999) on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees.

14Directive 98/27 (19 May 1998) on injunctions for the protection of consumers' interests.

15Directive 97/7 (20 May 1997) on the protection of consumers in respect of distance contracts.

16Treaty of Amsterdam, Official Journal C 340 of 10 November 1997.

171996 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment. General Assembly Resolution 51/162 (16 December 1996).

18Directive 95/46 (24 October 1995) on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.

19Directive 93/13 (5 April 1993) on unfair terms in consumer contracts.

20Convention on the Enforcement of Foreign Criminal Sentences, Convention of 13 November 1991.

21Convention of 16 September 1988 on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (Lugano).

22Directive 84/450 (10 September 1984) concerning misleading and comparative advertising.

23Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (consolidated version), opened for signature in Rome on 19 June 1980. Official Journal C 027, 26/01/1998 p. 34 to 46.

24The Convention establishing the European Free Trade Association, Official Journal L/300 (31 December 1972), pages 189 to 280.

25European Convention on the Transfer of Proceedings in Criminal Matters, Council of Europe, European Treaty Series - No. 73 (15 May 1972).

26Council of Europe, European Treaty Series No. 70 (28 May 1970).

27EC Convention on Jurisdiction and Enforcement of judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, 27 September 1968.

28United Nations' International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (21 December 1965).

29United Nations Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, New York (10 June 1958).

30Convention of 15 June 1955 on the law applicable to international sales of goods (The Hague).

31Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Rome (4 November 1950).

Creative Commons License